1. G. Silverman, “Ad Agencies Sound Alert Over the Mobile Phone Generation,” Financial Times, Nov. 9, 2004, p. 20.
2. S. Yonish, “Why Technographics Work,” research report (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Forrester Research, November 2001). This report defines 10 consumer segments based on technology use and acceptance. Research also suggests that the greater interactivity inherent in Web-based communications has a positive effect on brand performance, including consumer-loyalty intentions. See C. Mathwick, “Understanding the Online Consumer: A Typology of Online Relational Norms and Behavior,” Journal of Interactive Marketing (winter 2002): 40–55.
3. “McDonald’s 2003 – ‘Finding Nemo’: Got a Shark Biting on Your Mobile?” case study, www.12snap.com/english/12snap.html.
4. B. Steinberg, “Going Beyond TV to Woo Hip Youth,” Wall Street Journal, Aug. 26, 2005, p. B2.
5. Z. Rodgers, “Nokia Supports ‘Starbucks’ Scenario,” Feb. 10, 2005, www.pdastreet.com/articles/2005/2/2005-2-10-Nokia-Supports-Starbucks.html.
6. “New Order Uses Bluetooth Posters to Send Music Clips Direct to Cellphones,” Mar. 12, 2005, case study, http://www.engadget.com/entry/1234000130035625; and “New Order Pioneers Digital Posters,” Mar. 3, 2005, http://www.aversion.com/news/news_article.cfm?news_id=3897
7. Mobile 365, “Mobile 365 + Mindshare Rev Up Volvo’s S40 Campaign,” case study, www.mobile365.com/case_studies/volvo.php.
8. “Citibank Alerts: Wireless Banking in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia-Pacific,” case study, www.mobile365.com/case_studies/citibank.php.
9. Mobile 365, “Mobile 365 + OgilvyOne Use Mobile Element in Dove Campaign,” case study, www.mobile365.com/case_studies/dove.php.
10. This draws on the concept of viewing marketing communications efforts as an investment rather than an expense. See D.C. Court, J.W. Gordon and J. Perrey, “Boosting Returns on Marketing Investment,” McKinsey Quarterly, no. 2 (2005) online edition, www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_page.aspx?ar=1620&L2=16&L3=20.
11. MTV has successfully exported and grown its brand globally by customizing its programming with local tastes and content. MTV now reaches 331 million homes outside the United States in 164 countries. See J.L. Robert, “World Tour,” Newsweek, June 6, 2005, 34–35.
12. There are numerous sources for information about the prospects for emerging technology standards such as WiMax. For example, the city of Philadelphia is planning to build a WiMax network covering approximately 60% of the city. See C. Golvin, L. Godell and M. de Lussanet, “Let’s Get Real About WiMax,” research report (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Forrester Research, July 13, 2005) as well as “WiMax May Pose Fresh Challenge to Broadband,” Mar. 1, 2005, www.wimax-industry.com/ar/1k.htm and S.B. Shor, “Intel Releases First WiMAX Chip,” Apr. 18, 2005, www.technewsworld.com/story/42379.html.
13. Adidas decided to price downloadable content at $1.99, except for voice tones, which were priced at $2.99. Authors’ interviews with executives in the Global Media Group at Adidas International.
14. For more information on the role of firm-based learning and selective experimentation with respect to e-business strategy, see N. Venkatraman, “Five Steps to a Dot-Com Strategy: How to Find Your Footing on the Web,” Sloan Management Review 41, no. 3 (spring 2000): 15–28.