The role of leadership is a favorite theme among students of management, but most studies focus too narrowly on the individual “hero-leader,” according to these authors. They argue that leadership typically does not rest with a single individual, but is both pluralistic and fluid. This pluralism is in part a function of two very different leadership structures: the formal management hierarchy, and the informal networks that cross and operate within hierarchical lines. The intelligent manager understands that these two structures are complementary. The most successful decision making — and the most effective leadership — occurs when they are encourage to coexist.