For managers, the challenge of understanding nonmarket forces — government, interest groups, activists, and the public — is frequently more difficult than understanding the market environment. The author develops a strategy system of principles, frameworks, and action plans to deal with the issues, institutions, interests, and information that characterize the nonmarket environment. He uses the concept of a rent chain, analogous to the value chain, to show how companies can participate in policy-setting processes and generate leverage to their own benefit.
1. Baron addresses the integration of market and nonmarket strategies.
D.P. Baron, “Integrated Strategy: Market and Nonmarket Components,” California Management Review, Winter 1995, pp. 47–65.
2. The free-rider problem is present when a potential beneficiary from a policy alternative prefers not to work on its behalf because it knows it can free-ride on the efforts of others. See:
M.J. Olson, The Logic of Collective Action (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1965).
3. The Noerr-Pennington doctrine protects collective action of a political nature from the antitrust laws.
4. Other important factors in strategic management include organizational design and managerial processes.
5. M.E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1980); and
M.E. Porter, Competitive Advantage (New York: Free Press, 1985).
S.M. Oster, Modern Competitive Analysis, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
6. Institutional officeholders are best viewed as a part of their institution rather than as interests, even though they may have personal policy preferences.
7. D. Mayhew, Congress: The Electoral Connection (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1974);
Olson (1965); and
M.P. Fiorina, Congress: Keystone of the Washington Establishment, 2nd ed. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1989).
8. Baron offers an exposition of this framework and a detailed analysis of the issue of the elimination of tax credits on foreign leases used by Boeing in the sales of commercial aircraft. See:
D.P. Baron, Business and Its Environment, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, forthcoming).
9. See Baron (forthcoming), chapters 5–8.
10. R.W. Galvin. “International Business and the Changing Nature of Global Competition” (Oxford, Ohio: Miami University, speech, October 1992).
For analyses of aspects of this strategy, see:
D.B. Yoffie, “Motorola and Japan” and “Motorola and Japan: Supplements I, II, III” (Boston: Harvard Business School, 0-388-057, 0-388-058, 9-388-059, 1988); and
Baron (forthcoming): 410–411, 492–493, 505–507.
11. The pyramid indicates that there are relatively few conceptual frameworks and relatively more, respectively, nonmarket strategies, policies, and issue-specific action plans.
12. For the treatment of specific conceptual principles, see:
A. Marcus, A.M. Kaufman, and D.R. Beam, eds., Business Strategy and Public Policy (Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1987);
F. Shipper and M.M. Jennings, Business Strategy for the Political Arena (Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1984);
D.B. Yoffie, “Corporate Strategies for Political Action,” in Marcus et al. (1987): 43–60; and
D.B. Yoffie, “How an Industry Builds Political Advantage,” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1988, pp. 82–89.
13. P.R. Vagelos, “Are Prescription Drug Prices High?,” Science, 24 May 1991, p. 1083.
14. Ibid. This policy drew praise from the Senate Special Committee on Aging, “The Drug Manufacturing Industry: A Prescription for Profits” (Washington, D.C., U.S. Senate, Staff Report, 1991), p. 15. In 1993, when the Clinton administration stepped up criticism of pharmaceutical prices and profits, Merck offered a new plan to limit price increases.
15. New York Times, 22 May 1990.
16. The Congressional Budget Office estimated that the extension of discounts to the Medicaid programs would reduce expenditures by $3.3 billion over five years.
17. Porter (1980).
18. A majority is always sufficient to defeat a bill, but enactment can require more than a majority, as in the case of overcoming a filibuster in the U.S. Senate or achieving a qualified majority in the Council of Ministers in the European Union.
19. Yoffie (1988).
20. P. Ghemawat, Commitment: The Dynamic of Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1991.