1. Berreman (1996, p. 347) as cited in:
L. Suchman, Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human Machine Communication (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. vii.
2. C. Argyris and D.A. Schön, Organizational Learning (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1978).
3. K. Lewin, “Group Decision and Social Change,” in E. Newcombe and R. Harley, eds., Readings in Social Psychology (New York: Henry Holt, 1952), pp. 459–473; and
T.K. Kwon and R.W. Zmud, “Unifying the Fragmented Models of Information Systems Implementation,” in R.J. Boland, Jr., and R.A. Hirschheim, eds., Critical Issues in Information Systems Research (New York: John Wiley, 1987), pp. 227–251.
4. A.M. Pettigrew, The Awakening Giant (Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers, 1985).
5. Not all groupware technologies are flexible and customizable (e.g., fixed-function e-mail systems). We are interested here only in those that are (e.g., Lotus Notes).
6. D. DeJean and S.B. DeJean, Lotus Notes at Work (New York: Lotus Books, 1991); and
T.W. Malone, K.Y. Lai, and C. Fry, “Experiments with OVAL: A Radically Tailorable Tool for Cooperative Work (Toronto, Canada: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, November 1992), pp. 289–297.
7. H. Mintzberg, “The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning,” Harvard Business Review, volume 73, January–February 1994, pp. 107–114; and
R.G. McGrath and I.C. MacMillan, “Discovery-Driven Planning,” Harvard Business Review, volume 73, July–August 1995, pp. 44–54.
8. H. Mintzberg, “Crafting Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, volume 65, July–August 1987, pp. 66–75.
9. W.J. Orlikowski, “Improvising Organizational Transformation over Time: A Situated Change Perspective,” Information Systems Research, volume 7, March 1996, pp. 63–92.
10. W.J. Orlikowski, “Evolving with Notes: Organizational Change around Groupware Technology” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management, working paper 3823, 1995).
11. M.J. Gallivan, J.D. Hofman, and W.J. Orlikowski, “Implementing Radical Change: Gradual Versus Rapid Pace” (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Information Systems, 14–17 December 1994, pp. 325–339).
12. W.J. Orlikowski, “Learning from Notes: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation” (Toronto, Canada: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, November 1992, pp. 362–369).
13. W.J. Orlikowski, J. Yates, K. Okamura, and M. Fujimoto, “Shaping Electronic Communication: The Metastructuring of Technology in Use,” Organization Science, volume 6, July–August 1995, pp. 423–444.
14. S. Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine (New York: Basic Books, 1988).
15. Suchman (1987).
16. T.W. Malone, informal conversation, 1996.
We would like to thank the editor and reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. We gratefully appreciate the research support of MIT’s Center for Coordination Science and Center for Information Systems Research.