1. The only similar program we are aware of is the Total Data Quality Management Program at the MIT Sloan School, under the direction of Stuart Madnick and Richard Wang.
2. T.C. Redman, Data Quality: Management and Technology (New York: Bantam Books, 1992).
3. G. Kolata, “New Frontier in Research: Mining Patterns from Data,” New York Times, 9 August 1994, pp. A19–21; and
W.M. Bulkeley, “Databases Are Plagued by a Reign of Error,” Wall Street Journal, 26 May 1992, p. B6.
4. B. Knight, “The Data Pollution Problem,” Computerworld, 28 September 1992; and
L. Wilson, “The Devil in Your Data,” InformationWeek, 31 August 1992, pp. 48–54.
5. G.E. Liepens, “Sound Data Are a Sound Investment,” Quality Progress, September 1989, pp. 61–64;
G.E. Liepens and V.R.R. Uppuluri, eds., Data Quality Control: Theory and Pragmatics (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990); and
M.I. Svanks, “Integrity Analysis,” Information and Software Technology 30 (1988): 595–605.
6. D.P. Ballou and G.K. Tayi, “Methodology for Allocating Resources for Data Quality Enhancement,” Communications of the ACM 32 (1989): 320–329;
J.R. Johnson, R.A. Leitch, and J. Neter, “Characteristics of Errors in Accounts Receivables and Inventory Audits,” Accounting Review 56 (1981): 270–293;
K.C. Laudon, “Data Quality and Due Process in Large Interorganizational Record Systems,” Communications of the ACM 29 (1986): 4–18;
R.C. Morey, “Estimating and Improving the Quality of Information in a MIS,” Communications of the ACM 25 (1982): 337–342;
E.T. O’Neill and D. Vizine-Goetz, “Quality Control in On-line Databases,” in M.E. Williams, ed., Annual Review of Information, Science, and Technology 23 (1988): 125–156;
G.E. Liepens, R.S. Garfinkel, and A.S. Kunnathur, “Error Localization for Erroneous Data: A Survey,” TIMS/Studies in Management Science 19 (1982): 205–219;
K.J. Sy and A. Robbin, “Federal Statistical Policies and Programs: How Good Are the Numbers?” in M.E. Williams, ed., Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 25 (1990): 3–54; and
R. Barstow, “Centel Bashes Database Errors,” Telephony, 28 January 1991, pp. 36–39.
7. C.J. Fox, A.V. Levitin, and T.C. Redman, “The Notion of Data and Its Quality Dimensions,” Information Processing and Management 30 (1994): 9–19; and
R.Y. Wang, D.M. Strong, and L.M. Guarascio, “Data Consumers’ Perspectives on Data Quality” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management, TDQM Working Paper 94-01, May 1994).
8. Access services, provided by local telephone companies connect end users to Interexchange Carriers.
9. M. Light, “Data Pollution Can Choke Business Process Reengineering,” Inside Gartner Group This Week, 23 April 1993, pp. 5–6.
10. A.V. Levitin and T.C. Redman, “A Model of Data (Life) Cycles with Applications to Quality,” Information and Software Technology 35 (1993): 217–224.
11. T. Levitt, The Marketing Imagination (New York: Free Press, 1986);
W.E. Deming, “Out of the Crisis” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986);
A.V. Feigenbaum, Total Quality Control (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983);
K. Ishikawa, Introduction to Quality Control (Tokyo: 3A Corporation, 1990);
J.M. Juran, Managerial Breakthrough (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964); W.A. Shewhart, Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control (Washington, D.C.: Graduate School of the Department of Agriculture, 1939); and
H.M. Wadsworth, K.S. Stephens, and A.B. Godfrey, Modern Methods for Quality Control and Improvement (New York: Wiley, 1986).
12. Process Quality Management & Improvement Guidelines, 1.1 (Indianapolis: AT&T Customer Information Center, 1988).
13. Improving Data Accuracy: The Data Tracking Technique (Indianapolis: AT&T Customer Information Center, 1992).
The author acknowledges the help of Patricia Baker, Rebecca Bennett, Sandra Fuller, Monica Mehan, Kerin Montgomery, Robert Pautke, Carol Spears, John Tomka, and Scott Williamson at AT&T; Dennis Flentje, Brian Fuller, Gerry Gorry, Grant Salmon, and Lynne Wickens at Telstra; present and former members of the Information Quality group, Stu Tartarone and Ralph Wyndrum, Jr., of AT&T Bell Laboratories’ QUEST organization, and an anonymous referee.