MIT Sloan Management Review Endnotes Style

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MIT Sloan Management Review Endnotes

In contrast with many other scholarly publications, we do not identify references by date and author’s last name in parentheses in the text, followed by a bibliography at the end of the article. Instead, we ask that authors place superscripted numbers at the ends of sentences within the text that refer to a list of endnotes assembled at the end of the article. These endnotes should be presented in MIT SMR’s style. (See samples below).

Each enumerated endnote may contain several related items. It may be possible to group several citations or explanatory notes that occur in a single paragraph under one number.

We use the latest version of The Chicago Manual of Style as our guide for endnotes, but because we adhere to the Associated Press Stylebook for everything other than endnotes, there are some exceptions:

  • Do not spell out the first names of authors in endnotes.
  • Do not italicize book or magazine titles. Enclose book titles in quotation marks.
  • Do not italicize magazine names or place them within quotation marks.

Other AP style conventions apply as well. For example, the AP abbreviates most months when used with a specific day (Jan. 1, 2004; but January 2010).

As a rule of thumb, AP style trumps Chicago, and our AP-approved dictionary is the online version of Merriam-Webster’s for spelling, or you can use the equivalent print edition, which is Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (but please always use the most recent edition of the print version).


Usage note: The Chicago Manual of Style advises against the use of op. cit. and loc. cit. (See 15.256, p. 583, in Chicago.) If another page from a previously cited book is mentioned several endnotes later, follow the short-title approach: March and Simon, “Organizations,” 23. The use of ibid. is acceptable when referring to a single work cited in the endnote immediately preceding.

“Developing Leaders at All Levels,” eds. G. Hollenback and W. Vestal (Houston: American Productivity and Quality Center, 1999).

J. March and H.J. Simon, “Organizations,” 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966), 4-13.

Article Cited in an Anthology/Chapter Cited From a Book

M. Shaw, “Communication Networks,” in “Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,” ed. L. Berkowitz (New York: Academic Press, 1964), 131-153.

S.M. McKinnon and W.J. Bruins Jr., “Information for the Longer View,” ch. 3 in “The Information Mosaic” (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992).


W. Robbins, “Big Wheels: The Rotary Club at 75,” The New York Times, Sunday, Feb. 17, 1980, sec. 3, p. 3.

“Poverty in the U.S.,” International Herald Tribune, Sept. 29, 2000.


D. Kenny and J.F. Marshall, “Contextual Marketing: The Real Business of the Internet,” Harvard Business Review 78, no. 6 (November-December 2000): 119-125.

T.J. Allen and S. Cohen, “Information Flow in R&D Labs,” Administrative Science Quarterly 14, no. 12 (December 1969): 12-19.

M.C. Jensen and W.H. Meckling, “The Nature of Man,” Journal of Applied Finance 7, no. 2 (March-April 1994): 15-19.

“GM Powertrain Suppliers Will See Global Pricing,” Purchasing 124, no. 2 (Feb. 12, 1998): 10-11.

Popular Magazines, Press Releases, and News Releases

S. Spencer, “Childhood’s End,” Harper’s, May 1979, 16-19.

E. Neuborne, “E-Tailers, Deliver or Die,” Business Week, Oct. 23, 2000, 16.

“To Have and To Hold,” The Economist, June 16, 2001, 9-11.

Internet Sources

Usage note: Internet sources are those that exist solely online. A print publication that has an internet incarnation is not considered to be an “internet source.”

D. McCullagh, “ACLU Loses Digital Copyright Battle,” CNET, April 9, 2003,

“Toyota Expanding China Links,” CNN, April 9, 2003,

A. Huffington, “Corporate America’s ‘Most Wanted,’” Salon, April 2, 2003,

Working Papers

N. Repenning and J. Sterman, “Capability Traps and Self-Controlling Attribution Errors in the Dynamics of Process Improvement,” working paper 4372-02, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 2002.

McKinsey & Co., “Succeeding at Cross-Border Alliances: Lessons From Winners,” working paper, London, 1991.

D. Ready, “Developing Global Capability – Project Overview,” working paper, International Consortium for Executive Development Research, Lexington, Massachusetts, June 1997.

White Papers

“The Road to Recovery,” white paper, Sibson Consulting Group, New York, November 2001, p. 2.


J.P. Voges, “Supply Chain Design in the Volatile Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry” (Ph.D. diss., MIT Sloan School of Management and MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2002),

Forthcoming Books

M. Tushman, “Managing Innovation and Change” (New York: McGraw-Hill, forthcoming).

Forthcoming Articles

M. Tushman, “An Information Processing Approach,” Academy of Management Review, forthcoming.

Multiple Citations in One Reference

G. Farris, “Managing Informal Dynamics in R&D,” Harvard Business Review 64, no. 1 (January-February 1986): 5-11; and F. Andrews and G. Peters, “Personnel Psychology” (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986).

No Author Specified

“Work-at-Home After COVID-19 — Our Forecast,” Global Workplace Analytics, accessed Dec. 16, 2020,

“Poverty in the U.S.,” International Herald Tribune, Sept. 29, 2000.

Papers and Presentations at Meetings

J. Donehey and G. Overholser, “Capital One” (presentation at the Ernst & Young Embracing Complexity Conference, Boston, Aug. 2-4, 1998).

J. Kluge, “Simply Superior Sourcing” (paper presented at the Fifth International Annual Purchasing and Supply Education and Research Association Conference, Eindhoven, Netherlands, April 2, 1996).

Case Studies

R.M. Kanter, “FCB and Publicis (A): Forming the Alliance,” Harvard Business School case no. 9-393-099 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1993).

Organization, Association, or Corporation as Author

International Monetary Fund, “Survey of African Economies,” vol. 7, “Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia” (Washington, D.C.: IMF, 1977).

Government Reports

Securities and Exchange Commission, “Annual Report for the Securities and Exchange Commission for the Fiscal Year” (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983), 42.

Personal Communications

D.B. Johnson, interview with authors, Nov. 11, 1997.


“Race-Explicit Strategies for Workplace Equity in Healthcare and IT,” PDF file (New York: Race Forward, June 15, 2017),