Reshaping Business With Artificial Intelligence


1. At the time of his interview, Vishal Sikka was serving as CEO and managing director of Infosys. He has since resigned from that position to become executive vice chairman prior to the publication of this report.

2. We built a composite index of organizational understanding of AI based on the responses to nine survey questions related to AI understanding. This index, combined with the level of organizational adoption of AI, determined classification into the four clusters of organizations.

3. S. Ransbotham and D. Kiron, “Analytics as a Source of Business Innovation,” Feb. 28, 2017,

4. Y. Wang, “China Is Quickly Embracing Facial Recognition Tech, for Better and Worse,” July 11, 2017,

5. J. Ito and D. Kirkpatrick, “Davos — An Insight, an Idea with Joi Ito,” World Economic Forum interview, Jan. 20, 2017,

6. R. Ramirez, S. Churchhouse, A. Palermo, and J. Hoffman, “Using Scenario Planning to Reshape Strategy,” MIT Sloan Management Review 58 no. 4 (summer 2017): 31-37.

7. We did not ask respondents to look beyond five years, a horizon that is reasonably foreseeable. For some thoughts on what is possible in a 10- or 20-year time frame, see the Appendix.

8. World Economic Forum, “The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills, and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution” (January 2016), 13.

9. Ibid., 8.