The classic article has been read by countless business-school students and marketing professionals since it originally appeared in 1977. The model proposed at that time — which outlined how an independent entity should go about assessing an existing marketing program — was sufficiently streamlined that it holds up very well today. In their retrospective comments, the authors discuss marketing issues that have come to the forefront in the intervening years: globalization of markets, information technology, communications/promotion technology, strategic planning, more sophisticated analytical tools, and the increased attention paid to marketing throughout the organization. They close with suggestions on how to implement marketing audit recommendations.
1. Many useful checklists for marketers are found in C. Eldridge, The Management of the Marketing Function (New York: Association of National Advertisers, 1967).
2. See P. Kotler, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning and Control, 5th. ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984).
3. See PJ. Stonich, “Zero-Based Planning—A Management Tool,” Managerial Planning, July–August 1976, pp. 1–4.
4. T. Levitt, “The Globalization of Markets,” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1983, pp. 92–102;
“The Ad Biz Gloms onto “Global,’” Fortune, 12 November 1984, p. 77.
5. See ME. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: The Free Press, 1980);
M.E. Porter, Competitive Advantage (New York: The Free Press, 1985); and
D.F. Abell, Defining the Business: The Starting Point of Strategic Planning (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980).