The integrated job of managing has been lost in the conventional ways of describing it — as individual behaviors, such as leading, controlling, communicating, and so on. Each has generally been treated either in isolation or as part of a mere list of roles. The model the author presents here seeks to integrate what we already know managers do around a framework of concentric circles. At the core are the person in the job, the frame of the job, and its agenda. These are surrounded by roles managers perform at three levels: managing by information, managing through people, and managing action, each carried out inside and outside the unit. To demonstrate use of the model, and especially to understand different managerial styles, the author draws examples from his observations and interviews of a variety of managers. He concludes that managing has to be “well-rounded.”
1. H. Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973); and
H. Mintzberg, “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1975, pp. 49–61.
2. P.F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
3. M.E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1980).
For a comparison of strategy as perspective and position, see:
H. Mintzberg, “Five P’s for Strategy,” California Management Review, Fall 1987, pp. 11–24.
4. A. Noël, “Strategic Cores and Magnificent Obsessions: Discovering Strategy Formation through Daily Activities of CEOs,” Strategic Management Journal 10 (1989): 33–49.
5. J.P Kotter, The General Manager (New York: Free Press, 1982).
6. Noël (1989).
7. See R. Simons, “Strategic Orientation and Top Management Attention to Control Systems,” Strategic Management Journal 12 (1991): 49–62; and
R. Simons,“The Role of Management Control Systems in Creating Competitive Advantage: New Perspectives,” Accounting, Organizations and Society 15 (1990): 127–143.
8. See H. Simon’s discussion of intelligence, design, and choice, in The New Science of Management Decision (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1960).
9. H. Gulick and L.F. Urwick, Paper on the Science of Administration (New York, Columbia University, 1937); see also
H. Fayol, Administration industrielle et générale (Paris: Dunod, 1916); English translation, General and Industrial Administration (London: Pelman, 1949).
10. See F.W. Roethlisberger and W.J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1939).
11. See Karl Weick’s criticism of my inclusion of leading as a role in my 1973 book in:
K. Weick, “Review Essay of The Nature of Managerial Work,” Administrative Science Quarterly 19 (1974): 111–118.
12. M. Maeterlinck, The Life of the Bee (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1918).
13. L.R. Sayles, Managerial Behavior: Administration in Complex Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964);
Mintzberg (1973); and
14. L.R. Sayles, The Working Leader (New York: Free Press, 1993).
15. T. Peters, “The Case for Experimentation: or, you can’t plan your way to unplanning a formerly planned economy” (Palo Alto, California, pamphlet issued by Tom Peters Group, 1990).
16. A. Grove, High Output Management (New York: Random House, 1983).
17. K.E. Weick, The Social Psychology of Organizing (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1979).
H. Mintzberg, “Crafting Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1987, pp. 66–75.
18. See H. Mintzberg, “Managing as Blended Care,” Journal of Nursing Administration (forthcoming, 1994).