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Familiar examples of collective intelligence such as the vastness of user-generated Wikipedia and the way Google has collected web pages to answer user queries “are not the end of the story but just the beginning” writes MIT Sloan’s Thomas Malone.
Malone co-chaired the Collective Intelligence 2012 conference, which was held last week at MIT. His co-chair was Luis von Ahn, an assistant professor in School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon. The goal of the conference was to review papers about behavior that is both collective and intelligent and to lay the groundwork for forming a new interdisciplinary field to explore these kinds of intelligence. Malone is director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
Presenters and attendees tweeted about the events at Twitter hashtag #ci2012, noting that 104 papers were submitted for consideration and 18 selected for presentation. Additional papers were listed as poster papers and plenary abstracts. Full text of all the papers went online during the conference.
Here are the titles and authors of the papers that were presented:
Visualizing Collective Discursive User Interactions in Online Life Science Communities (Dhiraj Murthy, Alexander Gross, Stephanie Bond)
Analytic Methods for Optimizing Realtime Crowdsourcing (Michael S. Bernstein, David R. Karger, Robert C. Miller, Joel Brandt)
Crowd & Prejudice: An Impossibility Theorem for Crowd Labelling without a Gold Standard (Nicolás Della Penna, Mark Reid)
Re-Differentiation as Collective Intelligence: The Ktunaxa Language Online Community (Christopher Horsethief)
Group Foraging in Dynamic Environments (Michael Roberts, Sam Cheesman, Patrick McMullen)
Markerless Motion Capture in the Crowd (Ian Spiro, Thomas Huston, Chris Bregler)
Tracking the 2011 Student-Led Movement in Chile through Social Media Use (Cristobal Garcia)
Thermodynamic Principles in Social Collaborations (Zhang Ying, Huan-Kai Peng, Peter Pirolli, Tad Hogg)
When Majority Voting Fails: Comparing Quality Assurance Methods for Noisy Human Computation Environment (Yu-An Sun, Christopher Dance)
An Existing, Ecologically-Successful Genus of Collectively Intelligent Artificial Creatures (Benjamin Kuipers)
Effects of Social Influence on the Wisdom of Crowds (Claudio Tessone, Pavlin Mavrodiev, Frank Schweitzer)
Learning to Predict the Wisdom of Crowds (Seyda Ertekin, Haym Hirsh, Cynthia Rudin)
What “Crowdsourcing” Obscures: Exposing the Dynamics of Connected Crowd Work during Disaster (Kate Starbird)
Collaborative Development in Wikipedia (Gerald Kane, Sam Ransbotham)
Crowdsourcing Collective Emotional Intelligence (Rob Morris, Rosalind Picard)
Toward a Comparative Cognitive History: Archimedes and D. H. J. Polymath (Lav Varshney)
Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review (Juho Salminen)
Crowdsourcing Gaze Data Collection (Dmitry Rudoy, Dan Goldman, Eli Shechtman, Lihi Zelnik-Manor)
PDFs of all the papers are available at the Collective Intelligence 2012 website.
“Collective intelligence (CI) is an emerging interdisciplinary field that overlaps with many other disciplines, including computer science, management, network science, economics, social psychology, sociology, political science, and biology (e.g., social insects),” writes Malone. “Here at MIT, for instance, the Center for Collective Intelligence is housed within the Sloan School of Management. But it includes people from MIT’s computer science department, its brain and cognitive science department, and the Media Lab.”
The conference included “researchers who are trying to solve deep scientific questions such as: What are the conditions that lead groups to become more collectively intelligent instead of, say, collectively stupid?,” he adds. “The answers to these are theoretical questions can have huge, practical implications. They can, for instance, help companies become more productive and help societies solve their problems more effectively.”
The conference was sponsored by the National Science Foundation.