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In almost every business-to-business industry, companies are facing increasingly powerful intermediaries in their distribution channel. Industry consolidation is replacing a multitude of small “mom and pop” distributors with a handful of national, professionally managed, publicly traded corporations. Seeking to eliminate channel costs, these distributors make new demands on manufacturers and multiply service requirements. As distributors prune their supply base, market access for manufacturers is no longer guaranteed.
Traditional channel-management approaches rightly call for a manufacturer to identify strategies to maintain market position as value migrates down the channel. Consolidation complicates this effort, however, by creating uncertainty about the investments required to gain position if the channel structure changes. Which distributors will emerge as the winners? Which channel system will customers prefer? How should manufacturers manage relationships and investments during the transition period? How can these companies ensure that they will continue to be major players in the competitive landscape?
In this article, we provide a strategic primer on wholesale distributor consolidation for manufacturers. Our goal is to help man agers understand the dynamics of consolidation and the strategic options available to them. A company may be facing various stages of consolidation. Perhaps managers already realize that consolidation will soon overtake their channel. Or a manufacturer might find itself in a channel environment that is gradually moving from fragmentation to a few large players. Since much is known about channel relationships when there is a dominant intermediary, we focus our attention on the implications for manufacturers of the fragmentation-to-consolidation transition in the distribution channel.
We begin our discussion by describing consolidation and its drivers, which indicate when consolidation is impending. We contend that the dynamics of consolidating distribution channels call for manufacturers to rethink their approach to the trade. Drawing on more than a decade of research, interviews, industry case studies, and our own consulting experiences, we examine four strategic options available for a manufacturer facing the prospect of consolidation. Next we look at postconsolidation conditions, focusing on two critical challenges associated with the emergence of larger, more sophisticated distributors — supplier consolidation and increased service requirements. We conclude with some strategic questions for manufacturers and use an industry example to illustrate how companies make use of the strategic options.
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3. For a more complete discussion of the forces triggering consolidation, see:
A.J. Fein, Consolidation in Wholesale Distribution: Understanding Industry Change (Washington, D.C.: Distribution Research and Education Foundation, 1997).
4. See A.J. Fein, “Understanding Evolutionary Processes in Non-Manufacturing Industries: Empirical Insights from the Shakeout in Pharmaceutical Wholesaling,” Journal of Evolutionary Economics, volume 8, Fall 1998, pp. 231–270.
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8. Carl Cullotta at Frank Lynn & Associates suggested the “pick the winners” approach to us.
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A. Slywotzky, Value Migration (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996).
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