1. See J.W. Ross, C.M. Beath, and D.L. Goodhue, “Reinventing the IS Organization: Evolution and Revolution in IT Management Practices” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management, CISR working paper 266, February 1994); and
J.W. Ross, C.M. Beath, and D.L. Goodhue, “Develop Long-Term Competitiveness through IT Assets,” Sloan Management Review, volume 38, Fall 1996, pp. 31–42.
The comparative study, a joint research project between the MIT Center for Information Systems Research (CISR) and the Centre for Research in Information Management (CRIM) at London Business School, led by Michael Earl, examines similarities and differences in IT management in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan.
2. C. Handy, The Age of Unreason (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1990).
3. L.M. Applegate and N.A. Wishart, “Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (C)” (Boston: Harvard Business School, Case 190-071, 1989); and
R. Simons, “Strategic Orientation and Top Management Attention to Control Systems,” Strategic Management Journal, volume 12, January 1991, pp. 49–62.
4. H.W. Deutsch and J.C. McCarthy, “The New Customer Connection,” Computing Strategy Report (Forrester Research), September 1994.
5. J.E. Short and N. Venkatraman, “Baxter Healthcare Corporation: ASAP Express” (Boston: Harvard Business School, Case 188-080, 1988).
6. “The Computer Industry,” The Economist, 27 February 1993, pp.3–18.
7. Ross, Beath, and Goodhue (1996).
8. M.J. Earl and D.F. Feeny, “Is Your CIO Adding Value?,” Sloan Management Review, volume 35, Spring 1994, pp. 11–20.
9. P. Weill, M. Broadbent, and D. St. Clair, “Management by Maxim: The Formation of Information Technology Infrastructures” (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management, CISR working paper 276, December 1994).
10. M.J. Earl, “Limits to IT Outsourcing,” Sloan Management Review, volume 37, Spring 1996, pp. 26–32.
11. J.C. Henderson, “Plugging into Strategic Partnerships: The Critical IS Connection,” Sloan Management Review, volume 31, Spring 1990, pp. 7–18.
12. Handy (1990).
13. S.L. Hodgkinson, “The Role of the Corporate IT Function in the Federal IT Organization,” in M.J. Earl, ed., Information Management: The Organizational Dimension (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), chapter 12.
14. M.J. Earl, B.R. Edwards, and D.F. Feeny, “Configuring the IS Function in Complex Organizations,” in Earl (1996), chapter 10.
15. J.F. Rockart, “The Line Takes the Leadership — IS Management in a Wired Society,” Sloan Management Review, volume 24, Summer 1988, pp. 57–64; and
A.C. Boynton, G.C. Jacobs, and R.W. Zmud, “Whose Responsibility Is IT Management?,” Sloan Management Review, volume 33, Summer 1992, pp. 32–38.
16. H.J. Leavitt, “Applied Organizational Change in Industry,” Handbook of Organizations (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965), chapter 27.
17. J.F. Rockart and M.S. Scott Morton, “Implications of Changes in Information Technology for Corporate Strategy,” Interfaces, volume 14, January–February 1984, pp. 84–85.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the MIT Center for Information Systems Research, the IBM Institute for Electronic Government, the Centre for Research in Information Management at London Business School, and also Judith Quillard of MIT/CISR for her valuable suggestions.