1. See M.L. Hunter, M. Le Menestrel, and H.-C. De Bettignies, “Beyond Control: Crisis Strategies and Stakeholder Media in the Danone Boycott of 2001,”
Corporate Reputation Review 11, no. 4 (2008): 335-350; and M.L. Hunter, L.N. Van Wassenhove, and M. Besiou, “Lawnsite.com vs. DuPont (A, B, C),” INSEAD Case no. 06/2014-6071 (Fontainbleu, France: INSEAD, 2015).
2. The classic study of this movement and its media is S. Diamond, “Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States” (New York: Guilford Press, 1995). Diamond’s interest in Christian Right media extended to their printed handouts and other low-tech formats, as she documented in S. Diamond, “Facing the Wrath: Confronting the Right in Dangerous Times” (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1996). Stakeholders do not need the production values of CNN to make impactful media.
3. M.L. Hunter, “Beat the Press: How the Extreme Right Runs Rings Around the Media,” Columbia Journalism Review (March-April 1997): 14.
4. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Further Decline in Credibility Ratings For Most News Organizations,” 2012, www.people-press.org.
5. See M. Besiou, M.L. Hunter, and L.N. Van Wassenhove, “A Web of Watchdogs: Stakeholder Media Networks and Agenda-Setting in Response to Corporate Initiatives,” Journal of Business Ethics 118, no. 4 (December 2013): 709-729.
6. See M.L. Hunter, L.N. Van Wassenhove, M. Besiou, and M. van Halderen, “The Agenda-Setting Power of Stakeholder Media,” California Management Review 56, no. 1 (fall 2013): 24-49.
7. See M.L. Hunter and D.A. Soberman, “‘The Equalizer’: Measuring and Explaining the Impact of Online Communities on Consumer Markets,” Corporate Reputation Review 13, no. 4 (winter 2010): 225-247.
8. This quote, and most others related to the Imprelis case, was contained in a member post on the LawnSite.com forum. We downloaded every LawnSite.com thread in which Imprelis was mentioned from 2010 through 2013 and catalogued posts in chronological order under each thread heading. The thread headings fill eight pages of an index created by searching the forum for the term “Imprelis.” Some of the threads are short and narrow, with only a few posters and a few hundred views. But some are gigantic, like “Imprelis Discussion — it’s [sic] damage, DuPont’s Claim Process, Lawsuits filed, Experience,” which had attracted 1,013 posts and more than 230,000 views as of July 29, 2015. See M.L. Hunter, L.N. Van Wassenhove, and M. Besiou, “Lawnsite.com vs. DuPont (A, B, C).”
10. J. Robbins, “New Herbicide Suspected in Tree Deaths,” New York Times, July 14, 2011, p. 1+.
11. Hunter, Van Wassenhove, and Besiou, “Lawnsite.com vs. DuPont (A, B, C).”
13. This Danone story is told in detail in Hunter, Le Menestrel, and De Bettignies, “Beyond Control.”
16. See the case of BP plc, which is described in detail in Hunter, Van Wassenhove, Besiou, and van Halderen, “The Agenda-Setting Power of Stakeholder Media.”
17. See, for example, M. Geyelin, “Benlate Case Won By Parents of Child With Birth Defect,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 1996; see also “DuPont Halts Sale of Benlate Fungicide,” Los Angeles Times, April 20, 2001.
18. Hunter, Van Wassenhove, and Besiou, “Lawnsite.com vs. DuPont (A, B, C).”
20. Their conclusions were based on a study of several internal crises within organizations. We draw similar conclusions from crises in which organizations battle both internal and external stakeholders. See W.A. Kahn, M.A. Barton, and S. Fellows, “Organizational Crises and the Disturbance of Relational Systems,” Academy of Management Review 38, no. 3 (July 2013): 377-396.
21. Hunter, Van Wassenhove, and Besiou, “Lawnsite.com vs. DuPont (A, B, C).”
22. See, for example, the key EPA documents linked at “Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order and Case Letters: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Imprelis Order,” January 27, 2016, www.epa.gov.
23. The story is told in detail in Y.M. Antorini, A.M. Muñiz Jr., and T. Askildsen, “Collaborating With Customer Communities: Lessons From the LEGO Group,” MIT Sloan Management Review 53, no. 3 (spring 2012): 73-79.
24. E. von Hippel’s work on how customers and their communities contribute to innovation, from the 1980s through the present day, offers deep insight into these processes. For a very brief introduction to his work, see E. von Hippel and M.E. Mangelsdorf, “The User Innovation Revolution,” September 21, 2011, https://sloanreview.mit.edu.