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How do consumers access, buy and use their favorite products and services? The answer to that seemingly simple question is changing. While individuals have traditionally often seen ownership as the most desirable way to have access to products, increasing numbers of consumers are paying to temporarily access or share products and services rather than buy or own them.1 This so-called “sharing economy” is growing rapidly. While estimates for the current size of the nascent market vary, PricewaterhouseCoopers has estimated that by 2025, five main sectors of the sharing economy could represent $335 billion in revenue worldwide.2 Well-known examples of successful startups built on collaborative consumption systems include Airbnb Inc., a San Francisco-based online accommodations marketplace, and Zipcar, a car-sharing brand that is now part of the vehicle rental services company Avis Budget Group Inc., based in Parsippany, New Jersey.
Growth in sharing systems has particularly been fueled by the Internet, with its rise of social media systems,3 which facilitate connections between peers eager to share their possessions. The central conceit of collaborative consumption is simple: Obtain value from untapped potential residing in goods that are not entirely exploited by their owners.4
The speed of growth with which sharing systems have spread suggests that the sharing economy might represent a serious threat to established industries, due to fewer purchases and consequent distress in conventional markets. The Internet has made sharing enormously simpler. And for consumers, it seems to hold the potential to unite cost reduction, benefit augmentation, convenience and environmental consciousness in one mode of consumption. Companies therefore should understand and manage this emergent system in order to adapt current and future business models to provide new sources of revenues within this growing area of the economy.
In a broad sense, sharing can be anything to which access is enabled through pooling of resources, products or services.5 It can, according to Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers, authors of the book What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption, be divided into three main types. The first mode is product service systems, which allow members to share multiple products that are owned by companies or by private persons.
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1. See, for example, C.P. Lamberton and R.L. Rose, “When Is Ours Better Than Mine? A Framework for Understanding and Altering Participation in Commercial Sharing Systems,” Journal of Marketing 76, no. 4 (July 2012): 109-125; R. Botsman and R. Rogers, “What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption” (New York: Harper Business, 2010); Y. Chen, “Possession and Access: Consumer Desires and Value Perceptions Regarding Contemporary Art Collection and Exhibit Visits,” Journal of Consumer Research 35, no. 6 (April 2009): 925-940; and P. Marx, “The Borrowers: Why Buy When You Can Rent?” The New Yorker, January 31, 2011.
2. “The Sharing Economy — Sizing the Revenue Opportunity,” www.pwc.co.uk.
3. Lamberton and Rose, “When Is Ours Better Than Mine?”
4. See D. Sacks, “The Sharing Economy,” Fast Company, May 2011, www.fastcompany.com; and H. Chesbrough, “Open Services Innovation: Rethinking Your Business to Grow and Compete in a New Era” (San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, 2011).
5. F. Bardhi and G.M. Eckhardt, “Access-Based Consumption: The Case of Car Sharing,” Journal of Consumer Research 39, no. 4 (December 2012): 881-898.
6. Botsman and Rogers, “What’s Mine Is Yours.”
7. H. Garcia, “Consumption 2.0,” The Futurist 47, no. 1 (January-February 2013): 6-8.
8. S.L. Bryant, A. Forte and A. Bruckman, “Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia,” Proceedings of the 2005 International ACM SIGGroup Conference on Supporting Group Work (New York: ACM, 2005), 1-10; and K. Lakhani and R. Wolf, “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects,” in “Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software,” eds. J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam and K. Lakhani (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2005), 3-22.
9. T.M. Devinney, P. Auger and G.M. Eckhardt, “The Myth of the Ethical Consumer” (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
10. Sacks, “The Sharing Economy.”
11. Lamberton and Rose, “When Is Ours Better Than Mine?”
12. M.W. Johnson, “Seizing the White Space: Business Model Innovation for Growth and Renewal” (Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press, 2010).
13. T. Fischer, H. Gebauer and E. Fleisch, “Service Business Development: Strategies for Value Creation in Manufacturing Firms” (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
14. E. Lowitt, “Patagonia’s ‘Buy Less’ Campaign May Lead to More Revenue,” Harvard Business Review, October 2011, https://hbr.org.
15. B. Dumaine, “FedEx CEO Fred Smith on ... Everything,” Fortune, May 21, 2012.
16. L. Gansky, “The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing” (New York: Penguin, 2010).
17. S. Jörgens, “Tauschen Statt Kaufen,” Zeit Online, October 14, 2009, www.zeit.de.
18. See www.meindm.at/schoenheit/beitrag/swap-blogger.
19. L. Indvik, “Pepsi and TaskRabbit Get Busy,” October 16, 2012, http://mashable.com.
20. D. Schwegler, “Kuhleasing: Eine Kuh fur Fr. 380,” Beobachter, Sept. 15, 2011, www.beobachter.ch.
21. See www.kuhleasing.ch/kuhleasing/beschrieb.
22. See www.thewinefoundry.com.